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Tuesday, September 10, 2013

Education



Etymology

Etymology is the study of the history of words, their origins, and how their form and meaning have changed over time.
Etymologically, the word "education" is derived from the Latin ēducātiō ("A breeding, a bringing up, a rearing" (өсгөх, үржүүлэх, хүмүүжүүлэх, өндийлгөх, бойжуулах).
Education in its general sense is a form of learning in which the knowledge, skills, and habits of a group of people are transferred from one generation to the next through teaching, training, or research. Education frequently takes place under the guidance of others, but may also be autodidactic.


Type of education
There are three forms of learning: formal education, informal education and non-formal education.
Formal Education
Systems of schooling involve institutionalized teaching and learning in relation to a curriculum, which itself is established according to a predetermined purpose of the schools in the system.
Informal Education
Informal learning occurs in a variety of places, such as at home, work, and through daily interactions and shared relationships among members of society. For many learners this includes language acquisition, cultural norms and manners. Informal learning for young people is an ongoing process that also occurs in a variety of places, such as out of school time, in youth programs at community centers and media labs.
Non-formal education
It is learning that occurs in a formal learning environment, but that is not formally recognized. It typically involves workshops, community courses, interest based courses, short courses, or conference style seminars. The learning takes place in a formal setting such as an educational organization, but is not formally recognized within a curriculum or syllabus framework.

















Formal Education

Preschool education or Nursery school ( infant education)
In the United Kingdom nursery school (or 'playgroup') is the form of preschool education. In the United States the terms 'preschool' and 'Pre-K' are used, while "nursery school" is an older term.
Arguably the first pre-school institution was opened in 1816 by Robert Owen in New Lanark, Scotland.
Ages
U.S. Grade
Canadian Grade
3–4
4–5
Primary education or Elementary school
5–6
6–7
7–8
8–9
9–10
10–11
11–12
12–13
13–14
Secondary education or High school
14–15
Ninth grade, freshman
15–16
Tenth grade, sophomore
16–17
17–18
Twelfth grade, senior

At the secondary school level, grades 9–12 are also known as freshman (or "first-year"), sophomore, junior, and senior, especially in the United States. At the post-secondary level (college or university), these terms are used almost exclusively to refer to what would otherwise be grades 13–16, also mainly in the United States. However, at the post-secondary level in Canada, freshman is often called first-year, sophomore as second-year, and so on.

"Post-secondary" or "Higher" education
College

In ancient Rome a collegium was a club or society, a group of persons living together, under a common set of rules (con- = "together" + leg- = "law" or lego = "I choose").

Curriculum
In formal education, a curriculum is the set of courses and their content offered at a school or university. As an idea, curriculum stems from the Latin word for race course, referring to the course of deeds and experiences through which children grow to become mature adults. A curriculum is prescriptive, and is based on a more general syllabus which merely specifies what topics must be understood and to what level to achieve a particular grade or standard.
A syllabus (pl. syllabuses, or syllabi) from modern Latin syllabus "list", “table of contents in Greek", is an outline and summary of topics to be covered in an education or training course.

An academic discipline is a branch of knowledge which is formally taught, either at the university–or via some other such method. Each discipline usually has several sub-disciplines or branches, and distinguishing lines are often both arbitrary and ambiguous. Examples of broad areas of academic disciplines include the natural sciences, mathematics, computer science, social sciences, humanities.

Non-Formal Education
Autodidacticism (also autodidactism) is self-directed learning that is related to but different from informal learning. In a sense, autodidacticism is "learning on your own" or "by yourself", and an autodidact is a self-teacher. Some autodidacts spend a great deal of time reviewing the resources of libraries and educational websites. One may become an autodidact at nearly any point in one's life.
The term has its roots in the Ancient Greek words (autós, or "self") and (didaktikos, meaning "teaching").

Vocational education is a form of education focused on direct and practical training for a specific trade or craft. Vocational education may come in the form of an apprenticeship or internship as well as institutions teaching courses such as carpentry, agriculture, engineering, medicine, architecture and the arts.

Apprenticeship (traineeship, studentship) is a system of training a new generation of practitioners of a structured competency a basic set of skills. Apprenticeships ranged from craft occupations or trades to those seeking a professional license to practice in a regulated profession. Apprentices (or in early modern usage "prentices") or protégés build their careers from apprenticeships.

Mentorship is a personal developmental relationship in which a more experienced or more knowledgeable person helps to guide a less experienced or less knowledgeable person. The person in receipt of mentorship may be referred to as a protégé (male), a protégée (female), an apprentice or, in recent years, a mentee.

An internship is a method of on-the-job training for white-collar and professional careers. In some countries, internships for school children are called work experience. Non-profit charities and think tanks (police institute) often have unpaid, volunteer positions. Internships may be part-time or full-time. A typical internship lasts 6–12 weeks, but can be shorter or longer, depending on the organization involved.


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